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Aug-07-2012 02:55printcomments

German Court Circumcision Ban Correct in Parochial, Social and Secular Law

If there is anything that we wish to change in the child, we should first examine it and see whether it is not something that could better be changed in ourselves. - Carl Jung.

Image from pro-circumcision Website in Germany
Image from pro-circumcision Website in Germany carries the less than vague threat, that the ban could lead to, "forcing the practice underground." yupibar.com

(MONTEREY, CA) - As socialized beings, we are often unaware why we think what we think and why we do as we do. Exploring beneath the surface, we may discover we are not who we imagine we are. Are our subtle perversions and aberrations so different from those of the ancients, or others we label primitive? Dr. Catherine Bell wrote:[1]

Ritual mastery is itself a capacity for, and relationship of, relative domination… Specific relations of domination ad subordination are generated and orchestrated by the participants themselves simply by participating… It is this type of control that must be understood. These bodies of knowledge act simultaneously to secure a particular form of authority.

There is NO Religious, Social or Legal Standing allowing circumcision as performed today for any reason.  Circumcision is a Crime against Humanity.

Parochial Proscription:

The destruction of the past is
perhaps the greatest of all crimes

- Simone Weil.

PAROCHIAL PROSCRIPTIONS

Ritual Change

Mosaic Law Inconsistent

Comixio Religionis

Ritual Theory

The San Francisco court and city attorneys blindly erred deciding against Lloyd Schofield in a suit against him by circumcision proponents and his Ballot Initiative to ban circumcision of minors in the city of San Francisco.[2]  The opposition consolidated by having select California Representatives push through a Bill inferring Routine Infant Circumcision is a valid medical procedure.

Routine Infant Circumcision is not a valid medical procedure, but rather a religious ritual performed by physicians.  No Medical Society in the world, not even Israel’s, recommends Routine Infant Circumcision.  It is a religious ritual.

All three Jerusalemic religions state their Way of Life is the only way for salvation using their ritual pathway as a marker of belief.  It is the opposition of Good v Evil and they have the only answer.  To not follow means perdition.  The child is forced to endure the ritual event.  Dr. Catherine Bell stated:[3]

Binary oppositions almost always involve asymmetrical relations of dominance and subordination by which they generate hierarchically organized relationships…  Fairly standard understandings involve the positive notion of “influence”  on the one hand and the negative notion of “force” on the other.

Ritual Change

No one can give a definition to the procedure of circumcision in the Abrahamic Context.  There have been too many changes.  Even with known changes the true ritual is lost to history.  Working backward, history illustrates the following changes made by man which proponents espouse are from God.[4]

1) The newly established Brit Shalom Society has eliminated all blood ritual cutting of males. The ceremony in the same manner for girls called the Brit Bat (daughter’s covenant) as a welcoming into life.

2) In the last Century the sucking of blood from the circumcision wound has ceased except for Fundamental Orthodox Jewish sects.  Collection of blood with a pipette is now sometimes performed.

3) In 500 AD the direct oral sucking of blood from the penis by the ritual circumciser was established official.

4) In 135-140 AD full prepuce removal exposing the glans was established the official procedure for the Jewish circumcision ritual.

5) In 500 BC the removal of the true foreskin which only the skin that extends beyond the glans penis was initiated.

6) Prior to 500 BC it is surmised ritual circumcision was a nick to draw blood or a possible small dorsal slit to loosen the foreskin to ease retraction.

7) Prior to 500 BC some surmise only the first male child, in the manner described in Exodus, was initiated to God with a minor genital blood drawing ritual.

Severity in punishment as a means of religious control increased with each successive change from the original ritual.  The most radical alteration became official during the Roman era.  The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion states:[5]

Many Hellenistic Jews , particularly those who participated in athletics at the gymnasium, had an operation performed to conceal the fact of their circumcision (1Maccabees 1.15).  Similar action was taken during the Hadrianic persecution, in which period a prohibition against circumcision was issued.  It was probably to prevent the possibility of obliterating the traces of circumcision that the rabbis added to the requirement of cutting the foreskin that of ‘peri’ah’ (laying bare the glans).

This above quote is most IMPORTANT.  The general public has lost the meaning of the word foreskin as used in ancient times. It is the phrase: added to the requirement of cutting the foreskin. Linguistics of the times must be understood, and any Rabbi mohel should know this.[6]

The tip of the shaft is called the glans [balanos], and the skin around the glans [is called the] prepuce [posthe], and the extremity of the prepuce is called the akroposthion.

This differentiation explains the Hebrew words used in their Testament for circumcision. There were two Hebrew words used for circumcision: namal and muwl Namal means ‘clipped’ just like the tip of the fingernails.  Muwl means ‘to curtail, to blunt, to cut shorter.”[7]

Thus all men mentioned in both the Jewish Testament and the Christian Testament had their prepuce covered glans.  Put in other words, they might not have had their foreskins but they had their prepuce.

Mosaic Law Inconsistent

Moses did not circumcise Moses did not circumcise his son.  His wife Zipporah circumcised their son.  Moses did not allow circumcision when he led the Israelites.  Circumcision was reinstituted by Joshua after Moses died.

Mosaic Law is a derivation earlier Codes.

The earliest known Reform Laws were Sumerian made by King Urukagina who reigned from 2380Bc-2360 BC after usurping the corrupt King Lugalanda.

Later was the 2050 BC Code of Ur-Nammu who was king of Ur.  Ur was the town Abram migrated from.  Ur was the name of the sun god Ra’s ship as he traversed the heavens above.  1930 BC was the Codex of Eshnunna then the 1870 BC Codex of Lipit-Ishtar.

Following was the Mesopotamian 1772 BC Codex of Hammurabi the sixth Babylonian king.  From these came Hittite Laws, Assyrian Laws and Mosaic Laws.

The number 8 is used as the day for circumcision after birth because in the region it was the number for male sacrifice.  The number 8 figures predominately in the before conception and infant life of Heracles.[8]

Moses was NOT a Jew.  Moses was a Levite.  Levites were the priestly tribe for all tribes of Israel.  Jerusalemic circumcision is inconsistent with any attributions to Moses.  As an aside: The Christian Apostle Paul was NOT Jewish.  He was a Benjamite.

Comixio Religionis

Comixio Religionis is mixing of religions. History of Jerusalemic circumcision is inclusions of pagan goddess worship.  It occurs in three places:

1) Moses’s wife’s father was a priest of Midian.  Midian worshipped Hathor as their Great Mother goddess.  Hathor’s moon-god son was Horus.  When Horus transformed into animal form he had a flint knife paw.  The god coming to kill Moses was Horus.  Midianites also performed Golden Calf worship.[9]  Exodus 4:24-26.

2) Joshua instituted circumcision after Moses died.  Baal Berith was worshipped in the area.  Baal Berith literally means Lord of the Covenant.  His Great Mother goddess was a variant of Ashera associated with Ishtar and Lilith blood goddess worship.   Joshua 8: 30-35.

3) Abraham’s circumcision story is in Genesis 17.  It was first recorded around 500 BC after the Jewish return from Babylon.[10]  The story of Abraham’s son Ishmael by his Egyptian concubine Hagar being first circumcised indicates Egyptian worship.  The Egyptian Great Mother goddess was Isis who, like Hathor, had the moon-god son Horus.  Egypt defeated Midian and brought them into their sphere of influence.  Comixio Religionis occurred with these two cultures being in close proximity.

Comixio Religionis is evident in the later years of Solomon’s life when he took up worshipping gods and goddesses of his foreign wives.  After Solomon’s death they erected two temples for Golden Calf worship.  One was in the area of Joshua’s circumcision story.  The other was in Dan.  1 Kings 12:26ff.

Ezra’s Warning against inter-marriage with foreign wives is meant to example the mistakes of Comixio Religionis with Moses, Joshua, Solomon and in his contemporary time the influence of Egypt during the Jewish return from Babylon around 500 BC.  Ezra 9:11-13.

The true covenant with Abrahamic is in Genesis 15 with animal sacrifices.  The Book of the Covenant and the animal blood is mentioned in Exodus 24:7-8 prior to Joshua.

Ritual Theory

Circumcision is expressed as a mock-death partial human sacrifice through genital dismemberment.[11]  The initiate must die in an old life to be reborn into the perceived proper and superior society.  Baptism contains the same concept.  All deaths represent an apocalyptic event.  With rituals like circumcision: The child experiences the socialized apocalyptic event.

This is purification from a form of negotiated consensus to defining a perceived evilness for controlling society.  Ritual inclusion is a method of reshaping and restructuring existing social orders.  Bell stated:[12]

The orchestrated construction of power and authority in ritual, which is deeply evocative of the basic divisions of the social order, engage the social body in the objectification of oppositions and deployment of schemes that effectively reproduce the divisions of the social order… In the process such schemes become socially instinctive automatisms of the body and implicit strategies for shifting power relations among symbols… Culture uses ritual to control by means of sets of assumptions about the way things are and should be.

Thus, there is NO Religious Standing in allowing Jerusalemic circumcision as performed today for any reason.  It is a Crime against Humanity.

SOCIAL BODY

Diffusion of Responsibility

Social Contract

Axis Mundi and the Penis Totem Pole

Basic Social Act

The Social Body:

All religions, arts and sciences are branches of the same tree. Albert Einstein.

A Social Body is merely a group of persons associated by some common tie and regarded as an entity.  There is nothing so powerful than having others allow and/or participate is one’s religious ritual.  Dr. Catherine Bell stated:[13], [14]

(Rituals) demonstrate that collective effervescences do not so much unite the community as strengthen the socially more dominant group through a “mobilization of bias.”

Axis Mundi and the Penis Totem Pole

The Axis Mundi is a symbol representing the center of the world as well as the universe This symbol is where heaven and earth meet with relation to those the symbol connects.  The axis mundi is heavily used in animism.

The symbol may be a natural structure as a mountain, type of tribal vegetation or a phenomenon as fire.  Also the symbol may be man-made like a tower, maypole, cross or totem pole.  Religious are pagodas, churches or temple mounts.  Secular can be obelisks, and skyscrapers.

The tribal animal was the flesh and blood of tribe in matriarchal identity in which both the flesh and the blood belong to.[15]  Circumcision is similar to many rituals of ancestor worship.

With the one-God concept animal clan totems cease like those seen in tribal lore among North, Central and South American cultures.  Therefore a clan totem of flesh and blood had to be transferred to human representations.

Northwestern Native Americans carved totem poles of sacred animals and symbols on a cut large tree trunk then erected it. The circumcised penis is a human totem pole. Once the axis mundi is established, the power becomes seated within the Ritual Expert.  Bell stated:[16]

Ultimately, when the strategies of ritualization are dominated by a special group, recognized as official experts, the definition of reality that they objectify works primarily to retain the status and authority of the experts themselves.

Basic Social Act

The Basic Social Act reaches all aspects of identity and social interaction, whether conscious or not.

Cultural identity creates a group with all others outsiders.  Group unity gives a of sense security and insulates as protection.  It also allows the extension of violence onto other societies, while those other societies then attempt to protect themselves.  This is so whether or not warring factions realize what various Basic Social Acts are involved, to the same shared Basic Social Act with just a variant.  Bell stated:[17]

Ritual practices never define anything except I terms of the expedient relationships that ritualization itself establishes among things, thereby manipulating the meaning of things by manipulating their relationships.

What is distinctive about ritual is not what it says or symbolizes, but that first and foremost it does things: ritual is always a matter of “the performance of gestures and the manipulation of objects.”

Ritual structure is totally repressive; instead of channeling violence, the order of ritual completely denies it.

Diffusion of Responsibility

Diffusion of Responsibility is a socio-psychological phenomenon in which people are less likely to take action or feel a sense of responsibility for an action or inaction when others are present.  Diffusion of Responsibility increases when the number of persons increases during the course of the event.[18]  This is also called the Bystander Effect.

With Diffusion of Responsibility aggression both interpersonally and socially increases by the individuals who commit acts of violence.[19]  The current Operation Abraham circumcision campaign in Africa through the World Health Organization, the United States and Israel has proceeded unhindered even though the studies they present as evidence are too seriously flawed and false beyond true analytical comprehension.

Diffusion of Responsibility types arguments were used by the defenses in the Nuremburg Trials and in the Vietnam My Lai massacre.

The German court did not abdicate its responsibility as so many other courts, legislative bodies and elected officials have in the past and continue doing the same.  The court in ruling correctly acted for all citizens of minor age equally.<

Social Contract

Religious circumcision and genital blood rituals must cease.  Historic and religious conundrums must be re-evaluated among the various religious bodies themselves.  Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s The Social Contract determined:[20]

The articles of the contract are so precisely determined by  the nature of the act, that the slightest modification must render them null  and void; they are such that, though perhaps never formally stated, they are everywhere the same, everywhere tacitly admitted and, recognized, and if ever the social pact is violated, every man regains his original rights.

From initiation in power relations ritual is a negotiated compliance.  There are only two alternatives to resistance.  First is asocial self-exclusion resulting in estrangement from society. Second is total resistance.[21]

The German court was, in total resistance, correct in upholding existing law against this form of socialized child abuse.  The American Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) Behavior Analysts know true child molesters and other types of serial sexual predators will not quit until made to stop.  Often this means some form of removal from society’s general population.  It is hopeful the perpetrators of the custom in light of the evidence will cease.  John Douglas, originator of the term Criminal Profiling, stated:[22]

Changing wrong to right changes the standards.  This then makes the consequences non-consequential.

Thus, there is NO Social Standing in allowing circumcision as performed today for any reason whatsoever.  It amounts to a Crime against Humanity.

Related USA Laws, Codes, Precedencies:

RELATED LAWS, CODES, STATUTES

Standing

Deliberate Indifference

Religious Exemptions from Child Abuse Statutes

National Religious Preference

All actions are judged by the motive prompting them.   Muhammad.

Cultural Convention abdicates the Rule of Law.  It is serious when legal abdication to special interests occurs, especially through court precedence. Ritual circumcision is a self-glorification as well as glorification to the society that person belongs to. Performance of circumcision wrongly brings the sense of a higher moral order than others and other societies.  Dr. Bell wrote:[23]

Ultimately, the struggle between the individual psyche ad society is ever seen as simply out there I the social area, but within each person as well.  The formulation of ritual often appears to involve a distancing within actors of their private ad social lives…  Socialization cannot be anything less than the acquisition of schemes that can potentially restructure and renuance self and society.

Standing

Standing is the ability of a party to bring a lawsuit in court based upon their stake in the outcome.  A party seeking to demonstrate standing must be able to show the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged.  Otherwise, the court will rule that there is “Lack of Standing” to bring the suit and dismiss the case.[24]  It is incumbent on the court to determine if allegations support the assertion of Standing.[25]

There are three constitutional requirements to establish Standing in the USA:

1) Injury: The person bringing the suit must have suffered or will suffer injury.  The injury must not be abstract but must be within the zone of interests regulated or protected under statutory or constitutional guarantee.

2) Causation: The injury must be reasonably connected to the defendant’s conduct.

3) Redressability: A favorable court decision must be likely to redress the injury.

Deliberate Indifference and Deliberate Difference

The gender-based separation of protection created by the anti-FGM Schroeder/Collins bill is unconstitutional.[26]  All anti-FGM bills throughout Europe and each state within the USA are unconstitutional.  They are deficient in equal rights, rights to privacy and due process

Deliberate Indifference originated from prison inmate suits detailing a lack of, denial of or delay in needed medical care.  The concept revolves around the fact that inmates are in the care of the social agency where they are confined.  Deliberate Indifference entails the Act of Omission.[27]  Children are in the care of.

Deliberate Difference is the opposite side of the coin Deliberate Indifference.  Deliberate Difference entails the Act of Commission whether personal or societal.  The laws against Deliberate Difference are in those stated laws prohibiting discriminations.  The definition is:

Deliberate Difference is the setting apart of an individual or identifiable group, either expressly or by mute sanction, for different laws, equality, equity, actions, or inactions.

Though Deliberate Indifference addresses inmate right to health care, Deliberate Difference is applicable to enforcing the law to protect its minor aged males as they unconstitutionally protect minor females.  Legally, both sexes of minor children are to be protected.

Deliberate Indifference also puts liability on governmental institutions and sometimes their employees for failure to protect rights.

Religious Exemptions from Child Abuse Statutes

Every State in the USA has its Religious Exemptions from Child Abuse Statutes.  Children have died, and will continue to die, from this special consideration.[28]

In 1974 the U. S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare first required all States to have clauses in their Child Abuse and Neglect legislations permitting exemptions from prosecution of parents on religious grounds.  If the States refused they would lose all Federal funding for child abuse programs.

In 1983 the requirement was rescinded.  No State has repealed all Statutes.

The German court decision banned religious circumcision of minors, but did not ban the religious ritual for adults.  In response, the German Jewish community is lobbying for such an Exemption they blindly enjoy in the USA and elsewhere.

But in the USA Constitutional guarantees of freedom of religion do not permit children to be harmed through religious practices, nor do they allow religion to be a valid legal defense when an individual harms or neglects a child.[29]

Mute sanction gives the appearance of legality.  No State has a specific Exemption to circumcision.  This would not be attempted and the reason why certain interested legislatures in California passed a bill implying Routine Infant Circumcision is a valid medical procedure.  Circumcision may be a valid medical procedure but only in rare instances.  Most all problems are treatable otherwise.

USA National Religious Preference

The 1st Amendment of the USA Constitution states:

Congress shall make no laws respecting an establishment of a religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;

But “free exercise” does not transfer adult worship to child abuse.

Free exercise does not extend to Jerusalemic circumcision because otherwise Jerusalem’s gods would be either Midianite or Egyptian Horus or Canaanite Baal Berith.  To admit these gods were the God of Abraham would be anathema

Precedent of prohibiting harmful religious rituals is set by the United States in not allowing the America Plains Indians to practice their Vow to the Sun ritual and Ghost Dance.

Preferential treatment is given in convicting and sentencing Rabbis who commit child abuse.  There are more instances of Rabbis committing child abuse and child molestation in the USA than by Catholic priests.  Press and media owners prefer not to make this public unless necessary.[30]  The Talmud and the Hadith have similar allowances for sex with minors of both sexes.

The USA State of Rhode Island exempts Jews from its ban on uncle-niece incest as well as its ban on uncle-niece marriage.[31]

Some Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) criminal profilers know the sociological harm circumcision causes.  They will not speak of it in fear of losing their jobs and loss of reputation.

Secular Law:

NON_GENDER SECULAR LAW

United Nations

Germany

Austria and Switzerland

United States

Great Britain

Injustice is relatively easy to bear; what stings is justice.  H. L. Mencken.

Though the Law is dry to read it should be known.  A German court has banned circumcision.  Laws against the act of circumcision exist.  There is much ado about this decision.  Circumcision is a socialized form of child abuse and molestation.

Both in the religious, social, legal or medical, Lifton stated in his text regarding the psychology of genocide:[32]

In doubling, one part of the self “disavows” another part.  What is repudiated is not reality itself – but the meaning of that reality…  The SS doctor – deeply involved in the dark contradiction of the “schizophrenic condition”… lay in the idea of doing constructive medical work within a slaughterhouse.

United Nations

Article 5 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states:

No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Article 37

(a) of the U.N. Convention of the Rights of the Child is:

No child shall be subjected to torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

Constitutional Non Gender Based Equal Rights:

The law hath not been dead, though it hath slept. William Shakespeare.

German Constitution and Penal Codes[33]

CONSTITUTION: Articles 1, 2, 3

Article 1 (1), (2), (3) (1) The dignity of the person is untouchable.  It is to be respected (esteemed) and to be protected obligation of all state power.(2) The German people (nation) confess therefore to protect human rights as foundation of every human society, the peace and justice in the world.(3) The following fundamental rights bind legislation, executive authority and administration of justice as an immediately (directly) valid right (law)

Article 2 (1)

(1) Everybody has the right on the free development of his/her personality, as far as he/she does not violate the rights (laws) more different and does not offend against the order according to constitution or the custom law.  Every person has the right on life and physical intactness.  The constitutional guaranteed freedom (liberty) of the person is untouchable.  In these rights (laws) may be intervened only on grounds of a law.

Article 3 (1), (2), (3)

(1) All people are equal before the law.

(2) Men and women are equal.  The state promotes the actual protection of the equal rights of women and men and works towards the removal of existing discrimination and disadvantages.

(3) Nobody may be disadvantaged or discriminated because of gender, descent, race, language, native country and origin, faith, religious or political views.  Nobody may be disadvantaged or discriminated because of his/her impediment.

PENAL CODE: Paragraphs 223 and 240

223 Physical Injury (1), (2)

(1) Who ill-treats another person physically or damages in the health, is punished with term imprisonment up to five years with fine.

(2) The attempt is punishable.

240 Coercion

(1) Who urges a person illegal by or by criminal threat to an action, tolerance or omission, is punished with term imprisonment up to three years or with fine.

Austrian and Swiss Constitutions

Austrian and Swiss Constitutions are essentially the same as Germany’s Constitution.  Some regional bans on circumcision have been declared following the German court decision.

United States Constitution

Section 1 of the 14th Amendment of the United States Constitution states:

All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the States wherein they reside.  No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the law.

British Offences against the Person Act 1861

Within Section 2: Acts causing or tending to cause Danger to Life or Bodily Harm:

20: Inflicting bodily injury, with or without weapon.

Whosoever shall unlawfully and maliciously wound or inflict any grievous bodily harm upon any other person, either with or without a weapon or instrument, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor, and being convicted thereof shall be liable.

47: Assault occasioning bodily harm.  Common assault.

Whosoever shall be convicted upon an indictment of any assault occasioning bodily harm shall be liable.

Thus, there is NO Legal Standing in allowing circumcision as performed today for any reason.  It amounts to a Crime against Humanity.

    No man has the natural right to commit aggression on the equal rights of another, and this is all from which the laws ought restrain him.  -
    Thomas Jefferson.

Vainglorious: The Munchausen Complex

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/may262008/circ_richardm_5-24-08.php

Circumcision: Motivational Changes in the Meaning of the Word of God

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/july022011/circ-motivators-rm.php

Comixio Religionis: Circumcision NOT Jerusalemic

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/july242011/comixio-religionis-rm.php

 

Circumcision: Medicine Practicing Below the Usual and Customary Standards of Care in Ritual

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/september092011/circ-rituals-rm.php

 

Circumcision as Attenuated Homicides

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/november122011/circumcision-homicide-rm.php

 

Circumcision: Incest and the GAIA COMPLEX as the Opposite Side of the Oedipal Coin

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/january252012/freud-circumcision-rm.php

 

Circumcision: Culture Bound and Culture Specific Syndromes with Shared Psychotic Disorder

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/april242012/circumcision-culture-rm.php

 

Circumcision as an Organized Crime

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/april302012/circumcision-crime-rm.php

 

Circumcision: Captivity of a Sacrificial Caste

http://www.salem-news.com/articles/july162012/circumcision-caste-rm.php

 

All articles are Mandated Reports to the social body regarding socialized and acculturated abuse.

 

[1] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 215, 40-41 and 207.

 

[2] Griffin, Melissa, “San Francisco circumcision ban will be cut short,” The San Francisco Examiner, 26 July 2011.

 

[3] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 102 and 197.

 

[4] Glick, Leonard, Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America, Oxford University Press, 2005.

 

[5] Werblowski RJZ, Wignor G, The Oxford Dictionary of the Jewish Religion, Oxford University Press, 1997, p. 161.

 

[6] Hodges, Frederick M., “The Ideal Prepuce in Ancient Greece and Rome: Male Genital Aesthetics and Their Relation to Lipodermos, Circumcision, Foreskin Restoration and the Kynodesme,” Bulletin of the History of Medicine, vol. 75, no. 3 (Fall 2001): pp. 375-405.

 

[7] Laura Jezek, What the Bible Really Says About Routine Infant Circumcision.

 

[8] Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths, Complete Edition, Penguin, 1992.

 

[9] Schaalje, Jacqueline, “Timna,” The Jewish Magazine, October 2005.

 

[10] Glick, Leonard, Marked in Your Flesh: Circumcision from Ancient Judea to Modern America, Oxford University Press, 2005.

 

[11] Graves, Robert, The Greek Myths, Penguin, 1992, p.119.

 

[12] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 215.

 

[13] Lukes, Stephen, “Political Rituals and Social Integration,” Journal of the British Sociological Association, 9, no. 2, (1975), pp. 289-291, 300 and 305.

 

[14] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 96.

 

[15] Knight, Chris, Blood Relations: Menstruation and the Origins of Culture, Yale University Press, 1991, pp. 375, 379-380, 385 and 432.

 

[16] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 184.  Referencing; Bordieu, Pierre, “Outline of a Theory of Practice,” Cambridge University Press, 1977.

 

[17] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 173-174.  Referencing: Heesterman JC, “The Inner Conflict of Tradition,” University of Chicago Press, 1985.

 

[18] Darley, John M and Latane, Bibb, “Bystander Intervention in Emergencies,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1968, Vol. 8, No. 4, 377-383.

 

[19] Bandura, Albert; Underwood, Bill; and Fromson, Michael E., “Disinhibition of Aggression through Diffusion of Responsibility and Dehumanization of Victims,” Journal of Research in Personality, 9, 253-269 (1975).

 

[20] Rousseau, Jean Jacques, The Social Contract. Penguin Classics, 1968, p. 60.

 

[21] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, p. 215.

 

[22] Douglas, John with Olshaker, Mark, The Anatomy of Motive, Pocket, 1999, p. 367.

 

[23] Bell, Catherine, Ritual Theory, Ritual Practice, Oxford University Press, 1992, pp. 173 and 216.

 

[24] Lujan v. Defenders of Wildlife, 112 S. Ct. 2130. 2136 (1992) (Lujan).

 

[25] Warth v. Seldin, 422 U.S. 490, 501 (1974) (Warth)

 

[26] Schroeder, Patricia and Collins, Barbara, The Federal Prohibition of Female Circumcision Mutilation Act of 1993, (HR 3247).

 

[27] Kay, Susan, The Constitutional Dimensions of an Inmate’s Rights to Health Care, National Commission on Correctional Health Care by the Corrections and Sentencing Committee, Criminal Justice Section of the American Bar Association, 1991.

 

[28] Committee on Bioethics, American Academy of Pediatrics, “Religious Exemptions From Child Abuse Statutes,” Pediatrics, vol. 81, no. 1, January 1988.

 

[29] Walker v Superior Court, 763 P2d 852,860, (Calif 1988), cert denied, 491 US 905 (1989).

 

[30] Lowery, Wesley, “Rabbi Levitt sentenced to 10 years probation for abusing three boys I Boston in 1975-76,” Boston Globe, 02 August 2012.

 

[31] Farrow, Michael G.; Juberg, Richard C., “Genetics and Laws Prohibiting Marriage in the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 1969; 209(4): 534-538.

 

[32] Lifton, Robert, The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide, Basic Books, 1986, pp. 420-424 and 210.

 

[33] Translation by Amen Ronald Oberhollenzer.

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Richard Matteoli graduated from St. Mary's College of California in 1967 and Creighton University in 1971. He is retired from the US Navy where he spent most of his career attached to the United States Marine Corps and officially rated a Devil Doc. Other clinical experience outside private practice includes working for California Indian Health and California's Solano County Clinic for the poor as well as the Solano County Jail.

He is the author of the Handbook text references The Munchausen Complex: Socialization of Violence and Abuse and The Totemic Analogy in Bible Symbolism. Salem-News.com has carried several articles over the years. Dr. Matteoli has also been helpful in research for other articles we have carried, particularly with regard to military base contamination. We have been very pleased to have the honor of sharing his valuable writing with our readers.

You can write to Richard Matteoli at this address: richard.matteoli@goldrush.com

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Sean Flynn was a photojournalist in Vietnam, taken captive in 1970 in Cambodia and never seen again.